In 1933, António de Oliveira Salazar founded the Estado Novo (New State), an authoritarian and corporatist state in which he held all power. The photo, taken in 1936, shows António Salazar (left), Prime Minister from 1932 to 1968, and General Óscar Carmona, President of the Republic from 1933 to 1951.
An opponent of the regime of António Salazar, General Humberto Delgado was the only candidate to stand against the official candidate at the presidential elections held in 1958. He went into exile in January 1959 and was assassinated in February 1965 in Villanueva del Fresno, Spain, near the Portuguese border.
On 8 May 1945, at the end of the Second World War, António de Oliveira Salazar, Portuguese Prime Minister, delivers an address to the National Assembly during which he welcomes the victory and peace in Europe.
On 3 April 1946, in the daily newspaper O Século, António de Oliveira Salazar, Portuguese Prime Minister, publishes a message to the Portuguese people in which he emphasises the need to produce foodstuffs and to consume only what is strictly necessary in this difficult post-war period.
In its 6 June 1947 edition, the Portuguese daily newspaper O Século gives an assessment of post-war Europe. The US Secretary of State, George Marshall, proposes United States aid on condition that the countries of Europe unite to coordinate their economies.
On 25 November 1947, António de Oliveira Salazar, Portuguese Prime Minister, gives an address to the Members of Parliament in the library of the Portuguese National Assembly in which he addresses the problems of the post-war period and the feelings of poverty and fear in Europe.
Le 25 novembre 1947, António de Oliveira Salazar, président du Conseil, prononce un discours dans la bibliothèque de l'Assemblée nationale portugaise lors de sa réunion avec les députés, juste avant le début de la nouvelle législature.
On 6 March 1953, António de Oliveira Salazar, Portuguese Prime Minister, drafts a confidential circular for the Portuguese Embassies and Delegations which outlines the Portuguese position on the establishment of a possible European federation.
On 17 December 1956, in his address to the Portuguese National Assembly, MP Carlos Mantero refers to the Common Market and considers the questions of public spending and the economic and social policy of the government in this post-war period.
On 12 December 1957, during his first address to the Portuguese National Assembly, MP Mário de Oliveira considers the apprehension felt by the Portuguese people with regard to the European cooperation process launched by the Rome Treaties.
On 16 April 1948, in Paris, representatives of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom and the Commanders-in-Chief of the French, British and US occupation zones in Germany sign the Convention establishing the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) which will enter into force on 1 July 1948.
Map showing the European countries which, under the Marshall Plan, are offered US material aid for reconstruction, those which accept the aid and those which reject it, and those which, on 16 April 1948, in Paris, decide to establish the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC).
Signed on 16 October 1948 in Paris by the representatives of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Swtizerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom, by the Commanders-in-Chief of the French, British and US occupation zones in Germany and by the Commander of the British-US zone of the Free Territory of Trieste, the first Agreement for Intra-European Payments and Compensations aims to establish a regional payments system in order to encourage intra-European trade.
In its 9 July 1949 edition, the Angolan newspaper A Província de Angola assesses the situation of government debt in Portugal and the direct and indirect aid granted to Portugal and to its overseas provinces under the Marshall Plan.
Le 5 novembre 1949, António Júlio de Castro Fernandes (3e en partant de la dr.), ministre portugais de l'Économie, arrive à l'aéroport de Lisbonne après avoir participé à une réunion du Conseil général de l'Organisation européenne de coopération économique (OECE) qui s'est déroulée à Paris.
Le 24 novembre 1949, Francisco Mata (à dr.), rédacteur du journal portugais O Século s’entretient avec William Averell Harriman (à g.), ambassadeur des États-Unis auprès des pays de l’Europe occidentale qui bénéficient du plan Marshall.
Le 23 janvier 1950, António Júlio de Castro Fernandes (à g.), ministre portugais de l’Économie, s’entretient avec João da Costa Leite Lumbrales (à dr.), ministre des Finances, qui est sur le point de rejoindre Paris afin de participer à l’une des réunions de l’Organisation européenne de coopération économique (OECE).
Le 24 avril 1950 à Lisbonne, Jorge Pereira Jardim, sous-secrétaire d’État portugais chargé du Commerce et de l’Industrie, assiste à l’arrivée du bateau américain «Exchester» transportant un chargement de blé dans le cadre de l’aide du plan Marshall.
In its 27 August 1950 edition, the Portuguese daily newspaper O Século analyses the various applications made in 1949 and 1950 of the direct and indirect financial aid granted to Portugal under the Marshall Plan.
In its 5 July 1947 edition, the Portuguese daily newspaper Diário da Manhã publishes the letter from the British and French Governments inviting Portugal to attend the International Conference due to take place in Paris on 12 July 1947. The aim of this Conference is to consider the possibilities for cooperation between the countries of Europe in the light of the Marshall Plan.
Initial report of the Commercial Counsellors of the EEC Member States in Portugal, drafted by the Chairman of the group for the second half of 1959. Dated 23 July 1959, this report analyses Portugal’s economic situation on the basis of the exchanges of views between the Commercial Counsellors on Portugal’s attitude towards the Treaty of Rome, and on the problems of Portuguese participation in the talks concerning the establishment of a small free-trade area.
On 4 April 1949, in Washington, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States sign the North Atlantic Treaty. The Treaty enters into force on 24 August 1949.
On 4 April 1949, the Foreign Ministers of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States sign the North Atlantic Treaty in Washington.
On 24 August 1949, in Washington, the US President, Harry S. Truman, signs the Convention implementing the North Atlantic Treaty. Behind him, from left to right: Sir Frederick Hoyer Millar (United Kingdom), Henrik de Kauffmann (Denmark), W. D. Matthews (Canada), Louis Johnson, (US Defence Secretary), Wilhelm Munthe de Morgenstierne (Norway), Henri Bonnet (France), Pedro Theotonio Pereira (Portugal), Dean Acheson, (US Secretary of State), O. Reuchlin (Netherlands) and Mario Lucielli (Italy).
On 23 November 1951, the Portuguese Minister for Foreign Affairs, Paulo Cunha (left), and the Minister for the Army, General Abranches Pinto, set off for Rome, where the eighth session of the North Atlantic Council is due to be held from 24 to 28 November.
The session of the North Atlantic Council is held in Lisbon from 20 to 25 February 1952. During this session, the Alliance is restructured: NATO becomes a permanent organisation whose seat is established in Paris.
On 4 March 1952, during his address to the Portuguese National Assembly, MP Borges do Canto welcomes the efficient way in which the Portuguese organised the meeting of the North Atlantic Council, held a few days earlier, from 20 to 25 February, in Lisbon.
On 5 March 1953, the United States Ambassador, Cavendish W. Cannon, delivers an address as the 50th US tank is delivered in Lisbon under the Mutual Defense Assistance Program (MDAP) established between the United States Administration and the Portuguese Government.