On 3 October 1948, the Soviet Government sends a note to the United States, France and the United Kingdom condemning the monetary reform undertaken by the Western Allies in the zone of Berlin under their control.
In June 1948, the Soviet authorities announce a raft of measures seeking to block the supply of provisions to the Western zones of Berlin in reaction to the monetary reform introduced in Germany by the Western Allies.
In June 1948, Marshal Vassili Sokolovski, commander-in-chief of the Soviet zone of occupation in Germany, condemns the monetary reform introduced by the Western Allies in their zone of occupation and announces a series of restrictive measures with regard to the new Deutschmark.
On 26 September 1948, in a note from the United States, France and the United Kingdom to the Soviet Union, the three Western Allies express their annoyance following the Berlin Blockade and reveal their intention to bring the matter before the United Nations Security Council.
On 22 June 1948, Marshal Vassili Sokolovski, commander-in-chief of the Soviet zone of occupation in Germany, informs his US counterpart, General Lucius Clay, of the negative reaction of the Soviet Government towards the monetary reform introduced in the Western zone of occupation in Germany.
On 1 July 1948, the publication Soviet News attacks the monetary reform undertaken by the Western authorities who aim to introduce a new unit of account, the Deutschmark, into their three respective zones of occupation.
Dans ses Mémoires, l'ancien diplomate américain Robert Murphy se souvient de la décision prise le 24 juin 1948 par l'URSS de couper les voies d'accès à Berlin-Ouest et évoque l'ambiance dans la ville pendant cette période.
On 20 March 1948, in London, Vassili Sokolovsky, Soviet Marshal, announces the breakdown in relations between the Soviet Union and the Western Allies on the issue of Germany and confirms his refusal to attend future meetings of the Allied Control Council.
On 2 April 1948, the British daily newspaper Daily Mail condemns the decision of the Soviet Union to bring to an end its participation in meetings of the Allied Control Council and expresses concern over the risks of confrontation between the Western Allies and Moscow in the event of the Soviets’ blocking the means of access to Berlin.
On 5 April 1948, in the light of the deterioration of the international situation in Berlin, British cartoonist Leslie Gilbert Illingworth emphasises the growing opposition between the Western and Eastern blocs and evokes the risks of a major conflict between the two great superpowers that are the United States and the Soviet Union. From left to right, US President Harry Truman and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.
A few days after the start of the Berlin Blockade on 24 June 1948, the French newspaper Le Monde analyses the possible consequences of the blockade on the continuing talks between the Soviet Union, the United States and the United Kingdom on the quadripartite occupation of the city.
On 1 and 12 July 1948, Albert Wehrer, Head of the Luxembourg mission to the Allied Control Council in Berlin, sends several letters to Joseph Bech, Luxembourg Foreign Minister, in which he describes the state of tension in Berlin after the access routes to the former German capital were blocked by the Soviets.
Two weeks after the start of the Berlin Blockade by the Soviet Union on 24 June 1948, the United States sends a note to the Soviet Government expressing its resolve not to abandon the people of Berlin in the face of Soviet pressure.
On 30 July 1948, in a memorandum addressed to the Soviet authorities in Berlin, the British, French and US representatives reject the reasons put forward by Moscow for closing the access routes to Berlin.
‘Above the lime trees’. In July 1948 the German satirical magazine Der Tintenfisch portrays the hegemonic policy of the Soviet Union in Berlin and Moscow’s overt desire to see the Western Allies leave the former German capital.
‘Trial of strength.' On 1 July 1948, after the imposition of the Berlin Blockade by the Soviets, cartoonist Mirko Szewczuk illustrates the ‘trial of strength' between the Soviet Union and the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom and France) over the city's status.
‘Note after note — Fear not! We shall feed him so many strongly worded notes that he will no longer have any appetite for you …’ On 17 July 1948, some weeks after the start of the Berlin Blockade, the German cartoonist Lang comments ironically on the Western Allies’ response to the real threat posed by the Soviet Union to the city of Berlin.
In July 1948, British cartoonist Ernest Howard Shepard emphasises the Western Allies’ determination to present a united front against the decision taken by the Soviet Allies to block access to the Western zones of Berlin.
On 20 September 1948, Alexandre Parodi, permanent French delegate to the United Nations Security Council, expresses to Trygve Lie, first Secretary-General of the UN, France’s wish that the Security Council will intervene on the issue of the Berlin Blockade.
In October 1948, Joseph Stalin gives an interview to the Soviet Communist daily newspaper Pravda in which he outlines his position on the Berlin Blockade and deplores the aggressive policy of the Western bloc towards the USSR.
On 5 October 1948, in response to questions from East German journalists, Marshal Vasily Sokolovsky, Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet zone of occupation in Germany, outlines the causes of the Berlin Crisis.
On 27 October 1948, André François-Poncet, former French Ambassador to Germany, condemns in the French Conservative daily newspaper Le Figaro the Soviet policy on Berlin and calls for an end to the Blockade.
In 1948, Vincent Auriol, the first President of the Fourth French Republic, expresses his concern about the consequences of the Berlin Blockade. In favour of an agreement with the Soviet Union in order to defuse the situation, he refuses to lend his support to the American policy.
The Berlin Airlift (26 June 1948 to 30 September 1949)
The blockade imposed by the Soviet Union around the Western sectors of Berlin from 24 June 1948 to 12 May 1949 forces the Western Allies to organise an airlift along air corridors specifically allocated to aircraft supplying the cut-off city.
The blockade imposed by the Soviet Union around the western sectors of Berlin from 24 June 1948 to 12 May 1949 forced the Western Allies to establish an airlift along air corridors specifically allocated to aircraft supplying the cut-off city. In July 1948, the cartoonist of the German daily newspaper Frankfurter Rundschau points out the implications of the airlift, whose initial objective is to supply Berlin while, above all, symbolically protecting Europe against the Soviet threat.
In July 1948, as the Soviet authorities impose the Berlin Blockade, British cartoonist Ernest Howard Shepard takes an ironic look at the vain attempts by Moscow to put an end to the airlift organised by the Western Allies in order to bring supplies to West Berlin.
On 4 August 1948, Lieutenant-General Hugh Gray Martin, military correspondent of the British daily newspaper The Daily Telegraph, gives a personal account of the various stages in the organisation and the workings of the airlift to the western zones of Berlin.
On 15 September 1948, commenting on the airlift organised by the Western Allies to bring supplies to West Berlin, British cartoonist Leslie Gilbert Illingworth takes an ironic look at the new mission of the British pilots of the Royal Air Force, heroes of the Battle of Britain, who, three years after the end of the Second World War, have to fly to Berlin to transport food.
On 25 September 1948, as the airlift enters its 100th day, the German daily newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung considers the numerous difficulties involved in providing financial aid to the Western sectors of the City of Berlin, which have been cut off by the blockade imposed by Soviet forces since 24 June 1948.
On 27 September 1948, British cartoonist Leslie Gilbert Illingworth emphasises the effectiveness of the airlift bringing supplies to the Western sectors of Berlin, temporarily isolated by the blockade imposed by the Soviet forces on 24 June 1948. From bottom to top: Joseph Stalin, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; Vyacheslav Molotov, Soviet Foreign Minister; and Andrey Vyshinsky, Permanent Representative of the Soviet Union on the United Nations Security Council, who are vainly trying to stop the intermittent flow of aircraft bringing supplies to West Berlin.
On 1 November 1948, Otto Grotewohl, Chairman of the Unified Socialist Party (SED), makes a speech in which he condemns the airlift organised by the Western powers and portrays the Soviet Union's blockade of Berlin as a Western invention.
In February 1949, the Western allies proudly display the millionth tonne of supplies to arrive in the Western sectors of Berlin, currently cut off by the blockade imposed by the Soviet forces on 24 June 1948.
Between 24 June 1948 and 12 May 1949, more than 270 000 flights are required to deliver supplies to the Western sectors in Berlin which the Soviet authorities have decided to blockade following a currency reform initiated by the USA, the United Kingdom and France.
The Berlin Airlift (26 June 1948 to 30 September 1949)
Dans ses Mémoires, l'ancien président américain Harry S.Truman se souvient des conséquences du blocus soviétique des secteurs occidentaux de Berlin en juin 1948 et décrit le pont aérien mis en place par les Alliés occidentaux pour ravitailler Berlin-Ouest.
In May 1949, West Berliners and the Western forces celebrate the return to normality and the success of the Airlift, which forced the Soviet Union to reopen access routes to the Western sectors of the city on 12 May 1949.
On 4 May 1949, after lengthy negotiations, the representatives of the Governments of the United States, France, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union adopt a joint communiqué announcing that the Berlin Blockade is to be lifted on 12 May 1949.
On 5 May 1949, a few days before the lifting of the Berlin Blockade by the Soviets, the Dutch daily newspaper Het Parool looks at the consequences of the blockade for the Soviet Union and Western Europe.
On 7 July 1949, the British left-wing daily newspaper The Manchester Guardian describes the economic consequences of the lifting of restrictions on Berlin and the influx of consumer products into the German capital.