The date of the departure of the first contingent of Spanish workers to Belgium, 25 March 1957, coincides with the date of the signing, in Rome, of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) by Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
In 1960, the Franco Government decides to establish diplomatic relations with the European Economic Community (EEC). On 9 December 1960, in Brussels, the Count of Casa Miranda (left), Spanish Ambassador to Belgium, presents his credentials to Walter Hallstein, President of the Commission of the EEC, as Head of the Mission of Spain to the Community.
Spain’s application for association with the European Economic Community (EEC), dated 9 February 1962, submitted by Fernando María Castiella, Spanish Minister for Foreign Affairs, to Maurice Couve de Murville, President-in-Office of the Council of the EEC.
In a letter dated 7 March 1962, Maurice Couve de Murville, President-in-Office of the Council of the European Economic Community (EEC), acknowledges receipt of the letter sent by Fernando María Castiella, Spanish Foreign Minister, dated 9 February 1962, in which Spain requests association with the EEC.
In a letter sent on 14 February 1964 to Paul-Henri Spaak, President-in-Office of the Council of the European Economic Community (EEC), the Count of Casa Miranda, Head of the Spanish Diplomatic Mission to the European Communities, renews the Spanish Government’s application for association with the EEC.
In a letter sent on 2 June 1964 to Fernando María Castiella, Spanish Minister for Foreign Affairs, Paul-Henri Spaak, President-in-Office of the Council of the European Economic Community (EEC), responds favourably to the Spanish Government’s request to begin exploratory talks in order to consider the links to be established between Spain and the EEC.
‘Come, come!’ On 29 October 1968, Federal Chancellor Kurt Kiesinger meets General Franco during his official visit to the Spanish capital. The day after this visit, 30 October, the German cartoonist Wilhelm Hartung paints an ironic picture of this controversial meeting and accuses the Chancellor of working for the establishment of closer relations between Francoist Spain and the European Economic Community. Following their discussions, the representatives of the Federal Republic of Germany and Spain are of the view that a ‘minimum of collaboration’ is needed between the countries of Western Europe to guarantee their defence in response to the threat represented by the communist bloc.
On 6 December 1969, in Brussels, Juan Carlos de Bourbon, Prince of Spain, welcomes Jean Rey, President of the Commission of the European Economic Community (EEC), on a private visit to the European institutions.
On 29 January 1973, the additional protocol to the preferential trade agreement established in 1970 between the European Economic Community (EEC) and Spain as a result of the accession of three new Member States to the EEC (the United Kingdom, Denmark and Ireland) is signed at the Château de Val Duchesse. From left to right: Gregorio López-Bravo, Spanish Foreign Minister, Renaat Van Elslande, Belgian Foreign Minister and President-in-Office of the Council of the EEC, and François Xavier Ortoli, President of the Commission of the EEC.
In June 1975, as Franco nears death, the German cartoonist, Horst Haitzinger, takes an ironic look at the famous phrase spoken by the dictator about his succession by the future king, Juan Carlos: ‘Everything has been tied up, well tied up.'
On 21 November 1975, following the death of Franco, the French communist daily newspaper L’Humanité looks back over nearly 40 years of Fascist dictatorship in Spain and speculates on the country’s political future.
‘Bunker GMBH, Anarchy, Euro Taxi, Gulag&Co’. On 24 November 1975, Fritz Behrendt, a Dutch cartoonist originally from Berlin, paints an ironic picture of the choices open to Spain after the death of General Franco and illustrates the potential political routes that the country might take. The many options include a military dictatorship, anarchy, the European path and falling under the Soviet influence.
The 27th Congress of the Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE), held on 5 December 1976 in Madrid, is the first Congress of the Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party, still not legally recognised, to be held since the Civil War. At the Congress, Felipe González is confirmed as Secretary-General of the Party, receiving the support of the main European Socialist leaders. From left to right: Felipe González, Willy Brandt and Olof Palme.
Das Beitrittsgesuch Spaniens und die Beitrittsverhandlungen zu den EG
Spain’s application for accession to the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), dated 26 July 1977, submitted by Adolfo Suárez, Spanish Prime Minister, to Henri Simonet, President-in-Office of the Council of the European Communities.
Spain’s application for accession to the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom), dated 26 July 1977, submitted by Adolfo Suárez, Spanish Prime Minister, to Henri Simonet, President-in-Office of the Council of the European Communities.
On 28 July 1977, Marcelino Oreja, Spanish Foreign Minister, officially presents to Roy Jenkins, President of the European Commission, Spain's application for accession to the European Economic Community (EEC). From left to right, Mr Da Silva, Spanish Ambassador in Brussels, Roy Jenkins, President of the European Commission, Marcelino Oreja Aguirre and Wilhelm Haferkamp, European Commissioner with special responsibility for External Relations.
On 29 November 1978, despite predicted difficulties, the European Commission delivers a favourable opinion to the opening of the negotiations for the accession of Spain to the European Economic Community.
On 5 February 1979, the formal opening session of the negotiations for Spain’s accession to the European Communities is held at the Council, in Brussels. From left to right: Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo, Spanish Minister for relations with the European Communities, Jean François-Poncet, French Foreign Minister and President-in-Office of the Council, and Marcelino Oreja, Spanish Foreign Minister.
As negotiations are held for Spain’s accession to the European Communities, Roy Jenkins (on the left), President of the Commission of the European Communities, holds talks with Spanish Foreign Minister Marcelino Oreja.
Meeting between Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo (on the left), Spanish Minister for Relations with the European Communities, Roy Jenkins (second from the right), President of the Commission of the European Communities, and Adolfo Suárez, Spanish Prime Minister (on the right), in connection with the process for Spain’s accession to the EC.
The King of Spain, Juan Carlos I (on the left), meets Roy Jenkins (on the right), President of the Commission of the European Communities, during the negotiations for Spain’s accession to the European Communities.
In March 1979, this article in the monthly publication 30 jours d’Europe comments on the opening of the negotiations for Spain’s accession to the European Communities. The article particularly refers to the views expressed by the President of the Commission, Roy Jenkins, the French Foreign Minister, Jean François-Poncet, and the Spanish Minister for Relations with the European Communities, Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo.
On 23 February 1981, in Madrid, as the vote of approval is held for the appointment of Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo as Prime Minister, a group of Guardia Civil officers under the command of Colonel Antonio Tejero bursts into Congress and takes the Members of Parliament hostage. The attempted military coup d’état, which fails as a result of the decisive address given by King Juan Carlos on national television in which he denounces the coup and urges the upholding of the law and the democratically elected government, is the final totalitarian uprising against the fledgling Spanish democracy. This photo shows Colonel Tejero holding a weapon. On his left is Landelino Lavilla, President of the Chamber.
‘Signals from the day before yesterday.’ On 30 May 1981, Fritz Behrendt, a Dutch cartoonist originally from Berlin, illustrates how Spain is continuing its transition to democracy despite a series of terrorist attacks and an attempted military coup in February 1981. The young Spanish democracy is resisting those who would like to see it return to the Franco era.
Group photo taken on 29 March 1985 in front of the Moncloa Palace, Madrid, at the closing session of the negotiations for Spain’s accession to the European Communities. Felipe González, Spanish Prime Minister, poses with members of the Spanish Delegation for the accession negotiations, the spokesmen of the political groups in the Congress of Deputies and Adolfo Suárez, his predecessor as Prime Minister.
In diesem Interview spricht Hans-August Lücker, ehemaliger Ko-Vorsitzender der Gemischten Kommission Europäisches Parlament/Spanische Cortes, die den Beitritts Spaniens zu den Europäischen Gemeinschaften vorbereitete, über die Vorbehalte Italiens und Frankreichs hinsichtlich der Öffnung der Gemeinschaften gegenüber Spanien.
Der Beitritt Spaniens zu den Europäischen Gemeinschaften
On 11 April 1985, two months before the signature by Spain of the Treaty of Accession to the European Communities, the Spanish daily newspaper El País speculates on the future role the country will be able to play in Europe.
On 11 June 1985, in Madrid, on the eve of the formal signing of Spain’s Treaty of Accession to the European Communities, Fernando Morán, Spanish Foreign Minister, shows journalists the accession agreement documents which will be signed the following day in the Royal Palace, immediately before the extraordinary meeting of the Council of Ministers.
On 12 June 1985, in Madrid, Spain signs the Treaty of Accession to the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC). The Spanish signatories are the Foreign Minister, Fernando Morán (on the left), and the Prime Minister, Felipe González (on the right).
On 12 June 1985, commenting on the signing that day in Madrid of Spain's Treaty of Accession to the European Communities, the Belgian newspaper Le Soir describes the Spanish people's attitude towards their country's entry into a united Europe.
On 13 June 1985, reporting on the official signing of the Treaty concerning the accession of Spain to the European Communities, the Lisbon daily newspaper Diário de Notícias summarises the reactions prompted in Spain.
Felipe González, Spanish Prime Minister, attends the final European Council of the Ten, held in Luxembourg on 2 and 3 December 1985 before the accession of Spain and Portugal to the European Communities on 1 January 1986.
This photo, taken on 14 January 1986 in Strasbourg, shows the first two Spanish Members of the European Commission, Manuel Marín and Abel Matutes, on either side of the President of the European Parliament, Pierre Pflimlin, at the first plenary session of the Parliament after the enlargement of the Community to encompass 12 Member States.
On 10 June 1987, the Spanish people participate, for the first time, in the election of the European Parliament by direct universal suffrage. This photo shows citizens of the Community in Madrid exercising their right to vote.
On 4 March 1988, in Caya, Badajoz, Manuel Marín, Abel Matutes and António Cardoso e Cunha, Members of the European Commission, take part in a symbolic ceremony to mark the abolition of customs checks at the border between Spain and Portugal.
On 31 December 1988, at midnight, the Spanish people celebrate the New Year and the beginning of the first Spanish Presidency of the Council of the European Communities, on 1 January 1989, to the 12 chimes of the Puerta del Sol clock in Madrid.
On 15 June 1989, commenting on the end of the Spanish Presidency of the Council of the European Communities, Pedro Solbes, Spanish Minister for Relations with the European Communities, notes the positive outcome of Spain’s three and a half years of membership of the European Communities.
Press conference held at the Congress and Exhibition Centre in Madrid by Felipe González, Spanish Prime Minister, and Jacques Delors, President of the European Commission, at the end of the European Council meeting which closed the first Spanish Presidency of the Council of the European Communities.
On 1 April 1997, in Baena, Cordova, three political leaders with responsibility for agriculture, at regional, national and European level respectively, visit an olive grove. From left to right: Paulino Plata, Andalusian Councillor, Loyola de Palacio, Spanish Minister, and Franz Fischler, European Commissioner.
On 31 May 1997, members of the Seville Agrarian Association of Young Farmers demonstrate in front of the seat of the European Commission Representation in Madrid to show their opposition to the reform of the oils sector proposed by the Commission.
‘The Abduction of Europa.’ Whilst being crushed by Europe, José María Aznar still emerges victorious. In 1998, Spanish cartoonists Gallego and Rey take an ironic look at the Spanish Prime Minister’s relations with the European Union.
(1) ‘The euro, fixed at 166,386 pesetas.’ ‘Eh?’ ‘Try to divide your salary by 166,386.’‘Eh?’ ‘It’s depressing.’ (2) ‘Puñetas [damn] and tetas [boobs] rhymed with pesetas, but what rhymes with euro?’ ‘Pseudo, feudo [fief] and pneumo.’ ‘It’s gonna to be hard to get used to.’ ‘Yep.’ (3) ‘It’s not fair. Four billion undeclared pesetas and only four years to convert them into undeclared euros!’ The Spanish cartoonist Romeu takes a humorous look at the transition from the peseta to the euro.
A stretch of the A-381 Jerez de la Frontera-Los Barrios motorway in Cádiz, a project undertaken by the Junta de Andalucía (Government of the Community of Andalusia) and cofinanced by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). This photo was taken on 5 July 1999 while the motorway was being built.
On 9 December 1999, as the first euro banknotes are printed at the Royal Mint in Madrid, Juan Carlos de Bourbon, King of Spain, Rodrigo Rato, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Economic Affairs, and Fernando Díez Moreno, Junior Minister for Economic Affairs and Finance, attend the ceremony at which the future banknotes are presented.
‘We are already “Euro”-peans …’ ‘… which means that we still enjoy counting our pesetas, but we now have delusions of grandeur …’ To mark the official launch of the euro on 1 January 1999, Javirroyo and Estrellita Mutante, Spanish cartoonists, take an ironic look at the way the event is perceived by two old villagers.
In the 1970s, Spain was still a starting point for emigration from Europe, but, from the 1980s onwards, this trend was reversed, in particular after 1996, when immigration levels increased strongly, especially from African and Latin American countries. This photo shows 39 African illegal immigrants landing on the beach at Punta Paloma, Tarifa, on 13 August 2000.
‘This beach has been awarded the ‘Blue Flag of the European Union' for having kept its waters free from small boats full of North Africans.' The Spanish cartoonist Martín Morales takes a critical look at European policy on immigration.
In late December 2001, on the Puerta del Sol in the centre of the Spanish capital, the bear and the strawberry tree, symbols of Madrid, stand alongside the euro in the place where the people of Madrid are finalising preparations for the New Year celebrations, marked by the entry into circulation of the coins and banknotes of the new currency.
Spanien in den Gemeinschaften und in der Europäischen Union
‘Minimum 1 euro, thank you.’ Spanish cartoonist Mena takes an ironic look at the increase in the cost of living and at the financial difficulties experienced by citizens since the introduction of the single currency.
On 14 March 2002, during the Barcelona European Council, Andalusian trade unionists take part in the demonstration staged by the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) on the streets in the centre of the Catalan capital calling for ‘more Europe with full employment and social rights’.
On 3 November 2003, in Melilla, Elvira Rodríguez, Spanish Environment Minister, takes part in the ceremony for the laying of the foundation stone for a new desalination plant, a project 85 % cofinanced by the European Union Cohesion Fund.
On 4 November 2004, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, Spanish Prime Minister, presents to Javier Solana, Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union, the translations of the Constitutional Treaty into the three languages (Basque, Catalan/Valencian and Galician) which, in the respective autonomous communities, have the status of official languages alongside Castilian.
On 20 January 2005, crowds demonstrate in the streets of Madrid to protest against the proposed European Constitution on the margins of the campaign for the referendum on the ratification of the Constitutional Treaty to be held in Spain on 20 February.
On 28 January 2005, in Barcelona, Xavier Trias, Deputy Secretary-General of the nationalist Catalan coalition Convergència i Unió (CiU), expresses his support for the ‘Yes’ vote for the European Constitution, with the slogan ‘more Europe, more Catalonia’, in the run-up to the referendum held in Spain on 20 February for the ratification of the Constitutional Treaty.
On 15 February 2005, Gaspar Llamazares Trigo, General Coordinator of the ‘Izquierda Unida' (United Left) coalition in Spain, holds a press conference in Murcia at which he announces his support for the ‘No' vote in the Spanish referendum for the ratification of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, to be held on 20 February.
Le 17 février 2005 à Barcelone, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, Premier ministre espagnol, s'exprime en faveur du "oui" à la Constitution européenne dans la perspective du référendum organisé en Espagne le 20 février pour la ratification du traité constitutionnel.
On 18 February 2005, at the Congress and Exhibition Centre in Madrid, Mariano Rajoy, leader of the Spanish People’s Party, expresses his support for the ‘Yes’ vote for the European Constitution at the closing ceremony of the campaign held in Spain in the run-up to the referendum on 20 February on the ratification of the Constitutional Treaty.
Paru le 12 juin 2005 dans un supplément spécial du quotidien espagnol El País, publié à l'occasion du 20ème anniversaire de l'adhésion de l'Espagne aux Communautés européennes, ce reportage tire le bilan de deux décennies marquées par le développement économique et l'"europtimisme".
In this interview, published on 12 June 2005 in the Spanish daily newspaper El País to mark the 20th anniversary of Spain’s accession to the European Communities, former Spanish Prime Minister Felipe González recalls the feelings of confidence and fear that were created by Spanish accession, analyses the reactions to the European Union’s fifth enlargement and offers some ideas for overcoming the stagnation of the European economic and social model.
On 12 June 2006, in an article in a special supplement published to mark the 20th anniversary of Spain’s accession to the European Communities, the Spanish daily newspaper El País gives a brief overview of the career paths of 17 Spaniards who have held senior positions in Brussels.