On 31 March, 29 April, 20 May and 6 and 7 July 1944, militants from resistance movements of several European countries meet secretly in Geneva to discuss the problems related to the reconstruction of a democratic, federally-based Europe after the war.
In its 6 June 1947 edition, the Portuguese daily newspaper O Século gives an assessment of post-war Europe. The US Secretary of State, George Marshall, proposes United States aid on condition that the countries of Europe unite to coordinate their economies.
In March 1948, following the ‘Prague coup’ that led to the establishment of a Communist Government in Czechoslovakia, British cartoonist Ernest Howard Shepard compares Western Union to a strong tower in the face of the Soviet threat in Europe.
On 17 March 1948, the day of the signing of the Brussels Treaty by France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, the French daily newspaper Le Monde summarises for its readers the substance of the agreement.
On 21 April 1948, Pierre Pescatore, legal adviser at the Luxembourg Foreign Ministry, drafts a note on the military obligations resulting from the Brussels Treaty of 17 March 1948 in comparison with the provisions of the United Nations Charter.
At the end of the Congress of Europe held in The Hague in May 1948 by the International Committee of the Movements for European Unity, the participants adopt a Political Resolution calling for the convening of a European Assembly, the drafting of a Charter of Human Rights and the establishment a Court of Justice responsible for ensuring that the Charter is properly implemented.
In a memorandum dated 18 August 1948, the UK Chiefs of Staff set out their point of view on Western Union Defence Organisation. These proposals are intended as a basis for discussion at the meeting of the Western Union Chiefs of Staff Committee.
Diagrams showing the development and the composition of security and defence organisations in Europe since 1949 and, in particular, the change in cooperation structures following the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989.
On 25 June 1950, the United Nations Security Council reacts to the invasion of South Korea by North Korean Communist troops by demanding the immediate cessation of hostilities and the withdrawal of the North Korean army beyond the 38th parallel.
On 24 October 1950, René Pleven, President of the French Council of Ministers and former National Defence Minister, proposes to the French National Assembly the establishment of a European army in order to avoid German rearmament as sought by the United States.
On 10 September 1952, the Special Council of Ministers of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) decides to establish an Ad Hoc Assembly responsible for the drafting of a European Political Community (EPC) Treaty within a period of six months.
In 1953, the Union of European Federalists publishes a pamphlet on its proposed solution to the Saar issue. This publication analyses the historical, economic, political and legal facts as well as the French and German perspectives on this issue. It also addresses potential solutions that could contribute to the deepening of the European integration process.
On 29 April 1953, Pierre-Henri Teitgen gives a speech at a meeting held at the Palazzo del Cinema in Venice and organised by the Union of European Federalists. In his address, he discusses the European Defence Community (EDC) and analyses the consequences of a potential rejection of the EDC Treaty.
On 1 December 1953, British cartoonist David Low illustrates the Soviet Union’s opposition to the plan for a European Defence Community (EDC). On the left, Georgiy Maksimilianovich Malenkov, President of the Council of Ministers, and Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov, Soviet Foreign Minister.
In December 1953, the Mouvement Républicain Populaire (Popular Republican Movement — MRP) presents a publication on the European Defence Community (EDC). This publication examines the origins, characteristics, political structure and operation of the EDC as well as its approach to European integration. Emphasis is placed on the potential creation of a European army, especially its consequences for national sovereignty and peace in the continent.
In 1954, an article published by the journal Jeune Europe explains the reasons for the creation of the European Defence Community (EDC) and presents its historical milestones from a diachronical perspective.
In 1954, the journal Jeune Europe publishes an article which highlights the advantages of the European Defence Community, particularly its contribution to effective security and defence in France and to the European integration process.
In 1954, the Union française des fédéralistes (French Union of Federalists — UFF) publishes a pamphlet for French citizens on the need for a European Defence Community (EDC). This publication illustrates the contemporary development of France in demographic, economic and defence terms in comparison with other neighbouring countries. It also outlines the structure of the EDC and its potential economic and military advantages, explaining how it can be considered as a key vehicle of European integration.
In 1954, in Paris, the Union of European Federalists presents a publication on initiatives and constraints in the efforts towards European integration from a political, economic and security perspective. This publication also criticises the hindrances created by the Soviet Union and especially refers to the plan by Vyacheslav Molotov, which was proposed at the Conference of Foreign Ministers of the Four Powers (USSR, USA, France and the United Kingdom) in Berlin.
At the Conference of Foreign Ministers of the Four Powers (USSR, USA, France and the United Kingdom), held in Berlin from 25 January to 18 February 1954, the Soviet Minister, Vyacheslav Molotov, submits a draft general Treaty on collective security in Europe and proposes that a conference of European States be convened with a view to its conclusion.
On 5 March 1954, French socialist politician Guy Mollet and Belgian socialist statesman Paul-Henri Spaak speak at a meeting held by the Mouvement Démocratique et Socialiste pour les États-Unis d’Europe (Democratic and Socialist Movement for the United States of Europe — MDSEUE) in Paris. Their addresses summarise their positions on the European Defence Community (EDC) and the EDC Treaty, especially regarding the creation of a European army, disarmament, the defence and security of Europe, and the integration and reunification of Germany. Both addresses reveal examples of overlapping initiatives and constraints on the path towards European integration.
On 23 June 1954, as debates are held in the United Kingdom on the European Defence Community (EDC) and on the issue of the rearmament of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the British cartoonist, David Low, takes an ironic look at the opposition of Aneurin Bevan, Welsh politician and member of the British Labour Party, to the establishment of the EDC.
The Brussels Treaty as amended by the Protocol modifying and completing the Treaty that was originally signed on 17 March 1948 by His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Belgium, the President of the French Republic, President of the French Union, Her Royal Highness the Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands, and His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas. The document presents the modified and completed version signed in Paris on 23 October 1954, which sees the Federal Republic of Germany and Italy acceding to the Treaty. The organisation established by the Treaty is renamed ‘Western European Union’ and the ‘Consultative Council’ becomes the ‘Council of Western European Union’.
Document published in Strasbourg on 13 May 1955 relating the Council of Western European Union’s approval of the agreement concluded by the Governments of the Federal Republic of Germany and of the French Republic that grants the Saar European status under the aegis of Western European Union (WEU). The document also outlines the steps that are necessary for the implementation of the referendum on the Saar Statute, and sets out the principles of this referendum. Finally, it outlines the responsibilities and powers of the European Commissioner for the Saar.
On 14 May 1955, in Warsaw, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Soviet Union sign a Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, known as the Warsaw Pact.
The outer limit of the ‘Iron Curtain’ is symbolised by three former boundary posts which mark the meeting point between the territories of the former Duchies of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Saxe-Meiningen and the former Kingdom of Bavaria.
On 5 July 1966, in the statement on the strengthening of peace and security in Europe, the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Pact proposes the simultaneous dissolution of the two military blocs, the recognition of the existence of two German States, the development of agreements on disarmament in Germany and in Europe and the convening of a general European conference with a view to discussing the problems of ensuring security in Europe and of establishing general European cooperation.
Address given by Franco Maria Malfatti, President of the Commission of the European Communities, in Munich on 19 November 1970. The main topic of the address is the Commission’s possible participation in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe within the framework of political cooperation.
Address given by Franco Maria Malfatti, President of the Commission of the European Communities, at the Conference of Foreign Ministers held in Paris on 14 May 1971. Mr Malfatti discusses whether the chapter on economic cooperation should or should not be included in the Conference on European Security. He also comments on the report by the Political Committee.
Note drafted by the Commission of the European Communities in Brussels on 26 October 1971, focusing mainly on the Political Committee’s discussion of the economic aspects of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) and on the preparatory work for the summit.
Report by the Political Committee dated 4 November 1971 regarding the goals and principles of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. The document also includes a possible agenda for the Conference.
Address given by the President of the Commission of the European Communities in Rome on 5 November 1971 which deals with the economic and technical matters concerning the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. The President takes into account the proposals made by the ad hoc group, reaffirming the significance of the CSCE and stressing the need to establish a comprehensive joint trade policy with the Eastern countries.
Note dated 18 April 1972 explaining that the subcommittee has been asked by the Political Committee to examine the issue of the relationship between the EEC, the COMECON and their Member States, and to focus particularly on the attitude of the countries of Eastern Europe towards European unification. The note also mentions that the Commission of the European Communities has been invited to give its opinion on the matter, which shall be further discussed at the ad hoc group and subcommittee meeting due to be held on 9 May.
Working document drafted in Brussels by the Commission of the European Communities on 28 April 1972. The document discusses the benefits and the issues that derive from the East–West economic and industrial cooperation agreements.
Address given by the Commission representative on 9 May 1972 during the subcommittee and the ad hoc group meeting concerning preparations for the Conference on European Security and Cooperation. The address, which is divided into three sections, deals with the attitude of the countries of Eastern Europe towards the Community, the Community’s attitude towards the countries of Eastern Europe, and the relationship between the EEC and the COMECON.
Note drafted by the Commission of the European Communities in Brussels on 10 May 1972. The document indicates that the Commission has been encouraged to participate in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe within the framework of political cooperation. It also outlines the steps that Sicco Mansholt, President of the Commission, has taken in order to keep regular track of the work that the Commission is undertaking for this Conference.
On 6 November 1973, owing to concern over the repercussions of the unrest raging in the Middle East following the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War, the Nine, meeting in Copenhagen, publish a joint statement in which they define the principles that they believe should form the basis of a Middle-East peace agreement.
On 26 January 1979, in a confidential note sent to Émile Noël, Executive Secretary of the Commission of the European Economic Community, Umberto G. Stefani, Secretary General of Coreper and former chair of the interinstitutional group for emergency aid to the Member States, refers to his conversations with diplomats from the USSR and Czechoslovakia and by extension to the security aspects of EEC–Comecon relations.
On 31 January 1979, in a file note, Jean Groux, a member of the Legal Department of the Commission of the European Communities, refers to the visit he received from V. N. Kuznetsov, Adviser to the USSR Embassy. He particularly focuses on the details of their discussion, especially concerning EEC–Comecon relations, the European judicial area and the territorial application clause of EEC agreements.
On 20 February 1979, in a confidential note sent to Émile Noël, Executive Secretary of the Commission of the European Economic Community, Umberto G. Stefani, Secretary General of Coreper and former chair of the interinstitutional group for emergency aid to the Member States, refers to the visit he received from Babenkov, Secretary of the USSR Embassy in Brussels, and more particularly to their discussion on issues such as the events on the China–Vietnam border and the relations of some Comecon member countries with the Commission of the European Communities.
On 19 March 1979, in a confidential note sent to Émile Noël, Executive Secretary of the Commission of the European Economic Community, Umberto G. Stefani, Secretary General of Coreper and former chair of the interinstitutional group for emergency aid to the Member States, refers to the visit he received from Buzykin, Adviser to the USSR Embassy in Brussels, and more particularly to their discussion concerning the relations and agreement between the EEC and Comecon.
On 23 April 1979, in a confidential note sent to Émile Noël, Executive Secretary of the Commission of the European Economic Community, Umberto G. Stefani, Secretary General of Coreper and former chair of the interinstitutional group for emergency aid to the Member States, refers to the visit he received from Stenho, Adviser to the Embassy of Czechoslovakia, and more particularly to their discussion concerning issues such as operations at the China–Vietnam border, EEC–Comecon relations and EEC–China relations.
In this confidential working group report dated 24 April 1979, reference is made to détente as a policy objective of the protagonists of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) as well as to the different meanings of the concept of détente in Western and Eastern Europe. The report emphasises the need for stronger political cooperation to achieve détente and the importance of establishing a security system in Europe, and looks at various methods to guarantee long-lasting security relations. It also refers to the use of the concept of détente by the Soviets for propaganda purposes. The ‘Eastern countries’ working group makes specific proposals for the establishment of a system of collective security in Europe.
On 15 May 1979, Christopher Audland, Deputy Secretary-General of the Commission of the European Communities, sends a note to Sir Roy Denman, Director-General for External Affairs of the Commission of the European Communities, regarding his recent visit to Berlin and more particularly his discussion on 12 May 1979 with Bronislav P. Khotulev, one of the Ministers in the Soviet Embassy, concerning East–West relations, the Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin, the powers of the European Parliament and EEC–China relations.
On 29 May 1979, in a confidential note sent to Sir Roy Denman, Director-General for External Affairs of the Commission of the European Communities, Louis Kawan, Chief Adviser to the CSCE, refers to an article in Pravda, the official newspaper of the Soviet Communist Party, on the development of relations between the European Community and the USSR.
On 10 December 1979, in a confidential note addressed to Émile Noël, Executive Secretary of the Commission of the European Economic Community, Umberto G. Stefani, Secretary General of Coreper and former chair of the inter-institutional group for emergency aid to the Member States, refers to the visit he received from Mr Osmanski, Counsellor to the Embassy of Poland, and more particularly to their discussion concerning EEC–COMECON relations as well as to the relations between ASEAN and the Member States of the European Community.
On 13 July 1984, in Saarbrücken, Roland Dumas, French Foreign Minister, and Waldemar Schreckenberger, Junior Minister to the German Federal Chancellor, sign the Agreement on the gradual abolition of checks at the Franco-German border.
On 14 June 1985, in Schengen (Luxembourg), France, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the Benelux countries sign the Schengen Agreement on the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders.
Article dated 7 November 1986 from the French daily newspaper Le Monde. The article primarily deals with the exchanges between the US Secretary of State, George Shultz, and the Soviet Foreign Minister, Eduard Shevardnadze, mainly on the subject of disarmament and human rights, at the meetings held on 5 and 6 November concerning the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE).
On 27 October 1987 in The Hague, given the development of East–West relations, the Foreign and Defence Ministers of the Member States of Western European Union (WEU) adopt a ‘Platform on European Security Interests’. By emphasising the essential nature of Western Europe’s contribution to the balance of conventional and nuclear forces in a Europe which remains divided, they confirm their determination to strengthen the European pillar of the Atlantic Alliance and to develop a European identity in defence matters.
Signed on 19 June 1990 by Germany, Belgium, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, the Schengen Agreement defines the rules governing the conditions for the free movement of persons within the European Community.
‘Can you all see properly?’ In 1992, the cartoonist Behrendt denounces the wait-and-see attitude adopted by Europe and the rest of the Western world towards the acts of genocide perpetrated in former Yugoslavia.
On 26 March 1995, the date that the Schengen Agreement enters into force, controls are tightened on the borders of the participating countries, and long queues of cars form in various places, such as here in Frankfurt an der Oder, on the border between Germany and Poland.
According to the Court of Justice, in its judgment of 30 April 1996, in Case C-194/94, CIA Security International/Signalson and Securitel, Articles 8 and 9 of the Directive laying down a procedure for the provision of information in the field of technical standards and regulations, under which Member States must notify the Commission of all draft technical regulations covered by the Directive and, except in particular urgent cases, suspend their adoption and implementation for specified periods, are to be interpreted as meaning that individuals may rely on them before the national court, which must decline to apply a national technical regulation which has not been notified in accordance with the Directive.
On 3 June 1996, at its Ministerial Meeting in Berlin, the North Atlantic Council decides to adapt the Alliance’s structures so as to build a European Security and Defence Identity within NATO. In particular, the development of the concept of Combined Joint Task Forces (CJTF) should enable Europeans to make use of separable but not separate NATO military capabilities in Western European Union (WEU) operations.
In June 1997, in an article published in the Spanish magazine Política Exterior, Javier Solana, NATO Secretary-General, outlines the role of the Atlantic Organisation in the world and, in particular, in Europe on the eve of the new millennium.
At the Franco–British Summit held in St. Malo on 3 and 4 December 1998, the Heads of State or Government of the United Kingdom and France agree on the need to give the European Union (EU) the capacity for autonomous decision-making and action, backed up by credible military forces, in order to respond to international crises when the Atlantic Alliance is not involved. To avoid unnecessary duplication, it is decided that the EU should take into account the assets of Western European Union (WEU).
Presidency Conclusions reached on 3 and 4 June 1999 at the Cologne European Council, following the application of the Amsterdam Treaty (1 May 1999) and the introduction of the euro (1 January 1999). The European Council reaffirms the need for the implementation of the measures of the Stability and Growth Pact and aims for a significant reduction of unemployment, to be achieved mainly through innovation and the ‘information society’. It exhorts the institutions to put into practice the action plan for the creation of an area of freedom, security and justice and calls for the development of a common European security and defence policy as well as the improvement and enhanced coordination of the EU and Member States’ non-military crisis response tools. The Council also addresses safety issues and advocates the consolidation of fundamental rights at the European level in a Charter, while dealing with issues related to EU external relations.
Following the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam and the incorporation of visas, asylum and immigration issues into the Community system, the K4 Committee becomes the Article 36 Committee, and a new committee, the Strategic Committee on Immigration, Frontiers and Asylum (SCIFA), is established in order to ensure the coordination of the preparatory work of the Council in this policy area, henceforth falling under the first pillar. In a note dated 22 February 2000, the Council of the European Union considers the role and future activities of this Committee.
Council Decision of 22 January 2001 for the establishment of the Military Committee of the European Union, intended as ‘the highest military body established within the Council’. The Council Decision comprises six articles and an Annex which determine the composition of the EU Military Committee and set out its tasks, missions and functions. The means of appointment, term of office and tasks of the Chairman of the Committee are also specified.
The Presidency Conclusions of the Göteborg European Council, held on 15 and 16 June 2001, concern the forthcoming enlargement in 2004, sustainable development and issues related to peace and security. The European Council agrees to further the ratification process for the Treaty of Nice so that the European Union may welcome new Member States from the end of 2002, and agrees on a strategy for sustainable development. It highlights the crucial role of the European security and defence policy (ESDP) in preventing conflict and managing crisis, by military and civilian means, and endorses the EU Programme for the Prevention of Violent Conflicts, reaffirming conflict prevention as one of the main objectives of the European Union. The European Council also underscores the significant progress that has been made in creating a successful partnership with the UN in these fields of conflict prevention and crisis management, as well as in matters concerning development cooperation, humanitarian affairs, asylum policies and refugee assistance, and adopts a declaration on the prevention of the proliferation of ballistic missiles.
Following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, an Extraordinary European Council session is held on 21 September. The main aims of this meeting are to examine the international situation and provide impetus for EU action in the fight against terrorism. The European Council stresses the need for ‘global coordination’ and promotes an ‘interdisciplinary approach’. It approves a plan of action which includes enhancing police and judicial cooperation, developing international legal instruments, putting an end to the funding of terrorism and strengthening air security. Moreover, it insists on the need to further the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and to swiftly implement the European security and defence policy (ESDP). The European Council highlights the negative effects that the terrorist attacks are having on the economy but envisages the forthcoming introduction of the euro as a source of stability.
Council Framework Decision of 13 June 2002 regarding the implementation of a new system of surrender of sentenced or suspected persons for the purposes of execution or prosecution of criminal sentences. With this Framework Decision, the European Council provides a definition of the European arrest warrant; in the 31 Articles divided into four chapters, it specifies the scope of the European arrest warrant, its content and form, the detailed procedures for its transmission, as well as the limits and procedures for the decision to execute the arrest warrant. The European arrest warrant is intended as a further step towards the creation of an area of freedom, security and justice, which is one of the main objectives of the European Union.
During the Seville European Council, held on 21 and 22 June 2002, a number of measures are discussed and approved, many of which concern the final phase of the enlargement negotiations. The European Council also approves the Presidency report on the European Security and Defence Policy and underlines the need for swift implementation of the programme adopted in Tampere in order to create an area of freedom, security and justice in the European Union. It highlights the progress that has been made on various fronts, emphasising the importance of the plan to combat illegal immigration, the plan for the management of external borders and the Directive which sets the minimum standards for the admittance of asylum seekers to Member States. At the same time, the European Council reaffirms the need to address and resolve the root causes of illegal immigration by promoting economic cooperation, trade expansion, development assistance and conflict prevention. Furthermore, it broaches the threat of terrorism, adopting a Declaration on how to tackle this ‘scourge’.
Communication issued by the European Commission on 11 March 2003 with a view to the 2004 enlargement. The Commission sees the greater political and economic interdependence that will result from this enlargement as a means to encourage stability, security and sustainable development. It advocates the development of a ‘ring of friends’ who are bound together by ‘close, peaceful and co-operative relations’. This Communication also tackles the question of EU neighbours with no immediate prospect of becoming members.
In June 2003, the Thessaloniki European Council instructs the Secretary-General of the Council/High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) to submit a European Union security strategy to the General Affairs and External Relations Council. This document, entitled A Secure Europe in a Better World, is adopted by the European Council in Brussels on 12 December 2003. It emphasises the need for a multilateral and global approach to security in Europe and throughout the world.
On 25 February 2004, in an interview given in Paris, Georges Brondel, Honorary Director-General of the European Commission, refers to key events and players in the European integration process during his career. He makes particular reference to geopolitics, energy policies and the security aspects of oil supply.
Communication issued by the European Commission on 5 May 2004 in response to the challenges posed by the 2004 EU enlargement and the EU’s changing external borders. In this Communication, the Commission offers recommendations to further develop the European Neighbourhood Policy. These concern the inclusion of the countries of the Southern Caucasus in the ENP and the development of regional cooperation and integration in order to tackle issues that may arise at the external borders of the enlarged EU.
In this Communication, dated 14 July 2004, the European Commission gives an account of the work that has been done since February 2004 — when the Commission presented a political project for the Union to address the key challenges facing Europe and its citizens until 2013 — and since the completion of the policy proposals that endorse the principles of the February Communication. In this Communication, the Commission also notes the added value of the EU’s proposed actions and of the proposed governance instruments, and the expenditure that is necessary to develop the political project proposed by the Commission for 2007–2013. Furthermore, it clarifies the way in which the deliverables of this project will be simplified and rationalised.
Action Plan presented by the European Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on 10 May 2005 in order to carry out the Hague Programme, which reaffirms the EU’s commitment to the area of freedom, security and justice. This Action Plan comprises two main sections: in the first section the Commission outlines the issues and salient aspects of the Hague Programme. The Commission also notes ten priorities on which most attention should be placed. The second section details the measures and specific actions that the Commission believes should be taken in the field of freedom, security and justice.
On 27 and 28 November 2005, a Code of Conduct on Countering Terrorism is agreed at the Euromed Summit in Barcelona. This initiative by the countries of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership conveys their determination and efforts to strengthen cooperation and coordination in a bid to address the challenge of terrorism.
This film, produced in June 2006, shows that the European Union possesses the necessary structures and resources for it to become a leading force in global security. Under the European security and defence policy (ESDP), the Union deploys the resources at its disposal, be they military, diplomatic, economic or civilian, in various missions around the world, such as in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, both alone and in cooperation with other international actors.
Driven by the need to improve the capacity of the Community and its Member States to deal with critical situations such as the mass influx of illegal immigrants, especially at the European Union’s southern maritime external borders, the Commission proposes a European model for integrated border management. Stressing the need for operational measures to fight illegal immigration, protect refugees and reinforce control and surveillance of the external maritime border together with the necessity to build on the existing relations and practical cooperation already established with the third countries, the Commission recommends maximising the capacity of Frontex and introducing new tools for the next generation of integrated border management. The document emphasises the idea of secure borders as a central issue for EU development strategies.
In this document, the Committee of the Regions makes a series of recommendations, mostly in the area of illegal immigration and the integration process. It recommends that immediate action should be taken to harmonise legislation to put an end to human trafficking and the criminal organisations responsible for it; it also calls on the Commission to encourage and contribute to the identification of practical solutions to reinforce the management of the southern maritime external borders and improve the capacity of the Community, its Member States and its local and regional authorities to deal with critical situations, such as the mass influx of illegal immigrants, by urging the Community to propose mechanisms to ensure that future regularisations of illegal immigrants take place in a coordinated manner as part of a common immigration and asylum system. The Committee of the Regions calls for special attention to be paid to regions of the European Union situated in the Mediterranean and Atlantic area experiencing a particularly heavy inflow of illegal migrants and suffering from a lack of means to deal with a large number of immigrants with due human dignity levels; this requires immediate and decisive action at local, regional, national and European levels. Particular recommendations are given concerning relations with Africa, combating illegal immigration and strengthening integration measures, and also regarding Frontex.
In this Commission Decision (2008/456/EC), dated 5 March 2008 and amended by Commission Decision 2009/538/EC of 10 July 2009, rules are laid down for the implementation of the External Borders Fund. Particular reference is made to the implementation of this Fund on the grounds of public security, to the secure exchange of information and financial data between the Member States and the Commission, and to the implementation of projects for security reasons.
In this interview, Willem van Eekelen, Netherlands Minister for Defence from 1986 to 1988 and Secretary-General of Western European Union (WEU) from 1989 to 1994, recalls the origins of the concept of a European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI), first seen in 1991, as well as his own role in the implementation of this concept.
In this interview, Willem van Eekelen, Netherlands Minister for Defence from 1986 to 1988 and Secretary-General of Western European Union (WEU) from 1989 to 1994, sets out the implications of the Platform on European Security Interests adopted by the WEU Council of Ministers on 27 October 1987 in The Hague, and speculates on the notion of a European defence identity.
In this interview, Willem van Eekelen, Netherlands Minister for Defence from 1986 to 1988 and Secretary-General of Western European Union (WEU) from 1989 to 1994, recalls the ambiguous stance of the United States towards the establishment of a European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI) in the 1990s.
The Commission in this document, dated 16 September 2011, proposes to strengthen the Schengen acquis by means of a governance system capable of responding effectively, and in a timely and coordinated Union-wide way, to exceptional circumstances and challenges which might put the overall functioning of Schengen at stake. The Commission also proposes to initiate a more regular and structured political dialogue between the European Institutions on the functioning of the Schengen area.
This document, dated 12 December 2011, explains the situations and reasons backing the Commission’s legislative proposal establishing EUROSUR. This document also presents the general and specific and operational objectives of the proposed surveillance mechanism.
The necessity to further develop the European Border Surveillance System (EUROSUR) in order to allow Member States’ authorities to carry out border surveillance activities and the FRONTEX to share operational information and improve cooperation asked for the introduction of a legal framework focusing mostly on reinforcing the control of the Schengen external borders. The purpose of the legislative proposal is to improve the situational awareness and reaction capability of Member States and the Agency when preventing irregular migration and cross-border crime at the external land and maritime borders. The proposal provides clear regulations concerning the responsibilities and competencies for each party involved and the means of implementation of the common framework.
This report, requested by the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Home Affairs and coordinated by the Directorate-General for Communication, summarises the results of the Special Eurobarometer public opinion survey on cyber security carried out in the 27 EU countries. The fieldwork dates from March 2012. The survey investigates how, when and how often EU citizens use the internet; it also explores EU citizens’ degree of confidence in using the internet for transactions, as well as how aware and concerned EU citizens are of cyber crimes. This report includes three annexes: technical specifications, a questionnaire and tables containing details of the survey.
Cooperation theme 10 on Security is adopted by the European Commission on 9 July 2012 as part of Work Programme 2013. Its aim is to help develop technologies and knowledge that can increase security for citizens and improve competitiveness for industry. The Security theme involves five sections: the first describes the general context; the second includes all the topics for which proposals will be called in this work programme; the third deals with the practical arrangements related to the calls; the fourth focuses on actions that are not implemented through calls for proposals; and the fifth concerns the indicative budget.
Cooperation theme 10 on Security, adopted by the European Commission on 27 June 2013, updates and replaces the 2013 Work Programme adopted on 9 July 2012. This version adds to the indicative budget and amends the previous breakdown between activities. The objective of theme 10 remains the same, namely to help develop technologies and knowledge that can increase security for citizens and improve competitiveness for industry. The Security theme is divided into five sections: section I presents the general context; section II comprises all the topics for which proposals will be called in this work programme; section III includes the practical arrangements related to the calls; section IV focuses on actions that are not implemented through calls for proposals; and section V concerns the indicative budget.