During the Second World War, Jean Monnet, a member of the French Committee for National Liberation in Algiers, reflects on how to restore lasting peace and ensure the economic reconstruction of Europe once the war is over.
From 1950, the Frenchman Jean Monnet, Commissioner-General of the French National Planning Board, played an active role in the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), serving as President of the ECSC High Authority in Luxembourg from 1952 to 1955.
During a visit to the United States in April 1948, Jean Monnet sends a letter to Robert Schuman in which he confirms the United States' desire to help with the reconstruction of Western Europe in order to curb Soviet expansion.
Le dimanche 16 avril 1950, Jean Monnet retrouve Paul Reuter et Etienne Hirsch à Montfort-l'Amaury, près de Paris. Ensemble, ils précisent l'idée d'un pool charbon-acier européen et rédigent un premier texte. Vingt-cinq ans plus tard, Jean Monnet se souvient avec précision de cette journée.
On 22 September 1950, Jean Monnet, Commissioner-General of the French National Planning Board, speculates on the methods for organising the European continent whilst providing a suitable response to the question of the economic, political and military reconstruction of West Germany.
As US High Commissioner in Germany from 1949 to 1952, John McCloy gives considerable support to the Schuman Plan. From left to right: Harry S. Truman, President of the United States, John McCloy and Dean Acheson, US Secretary of State, in discussion at the White House on 23 January 1950.
In this interview granted to RTL radio journalists in Paris on 22 January 1972, Jean Monnet discusses his career and outlines the evolution of his commitment to Europe, which began in the interwar period.
On 11 November 1980, in an interview granted to journalist Roger Massip, Bernard Clappier, former Head of the Private Office of French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman, describes the circumstances in which the Schuman Plan was prepared in 1950 and outlines the role played by Jean Monnet.
On 10 and 11 May 1970, in an interview given to journalist Georges Suffert, Jean Monnet, Commissioner-General of the French National Planning Board in 1950, describes how the French plan for a coal and steel pool was developed and outlines his working method.
Jacques-René Rabier, Head of Jean Monnet's Private Office at the French National Planning Board from 1947 to 1952, describes Jean Monnet's pro-European convictions from their origins to the drafting of the Schuman Plan.
In this interview, Jacques-René Rabier, Head of the Private Office of Jean Monnet at the French National Planning Board from 1947 to 1952, explains his personal experience of the preparations for the Schuman Plan within the National Planning Board. He also describes the atmosphere when Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, made his declaration on 9 May 1950 in the Salon de l'Horloge at the Quai d'Orsay in Paris, a declaration that Jacques-René Rabier witnessed at first hand.
Pierre Gerbet, Emeritus University Professor at the Paris Institute of Political Science, outlines the originality of the method — sometimes referred to as the ‘small steps’ approach — of gradual and sectoral integration advocated by Jean Monnet, the man behind the plan for a European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1950.
During this interview in February 2004, Archduke Otto von Habsburg-Lothringen, President of the International Paneuropean Union, describes Jean Monnet's personality and his ‘step-by-step' approach to the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).
In this interview, Leo Tindemans, former Prime Minister of Belgium and Minister for Foreign Affairs, discusses the personality of Jean Monnet as well as his working methods whilst in the Action Committee for the United States of Europe.
On 10 June 1947, the European Coal Organisation publishes a report on the situation of the coalfields in Europe and proposes measures to alleviate manpower shortages and to improve the outdated methods of coal production and distribution.
In 1949, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe publishes a report in which it recommends a series of measures to enable the European steel industry to retain a competitive position on the world steel market.
In his memoirs, Robert Schuman, former French Foreign Minister, recalls the reasons behind his commitment to a European coal and steel pool and his decision to take on the political responsibility for such a project.
Dans ses Mémoires, Jean Monnet rappelle pourquoi les secteurs de l'industrie lourde du charbon et de l'acier ont été choisis pour mettre fin aux tensions franco-allemandes et pour concrétiser la construction européenne.
Le charbon et l'acier se devaient d'être pour Jean Monnet, commissaire général au Plan de modernisation et d'équipement, les premiers supports susceptibles d'établir une communauté concrète d'intérêts, ouvrant la voie à la mise en place d'une autorité supranationale dotée de véritables pouvoirs.
‘Mum, Dad, the coalman is here. I haven’t got any money … You haven’t got any money. So who called the coalman …?’ On 10 August 1950, the German cartoonist, Ernst Maria Lang, illustrates the fears of German industry in the light of Jean Monnet’s commitment to a European coal and steel pool.