On 1 August 1968, the day after the Soviet-Czech Summit in Cierna, General Ludvik Svoboda, President of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, confirms that the Czech Government will continue its experiment with ‘Socialism with a human face’ within the framework of the Warsaw Pact.
In 1968, there are regular demonstrations in Wenceslas Square, Prague, in support of the political reforms towards democracy undertaken by Alexander Dubcek, First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.
A few days before the invasion of Prague by Warsaw Pact troops on 20 August 1968, Czechoslovaks show their support for the national democratisation movement in manifestos sent to the Central Committee of the Communist Party.
In 1968, the cartoonist Behrendt condemns the determination of the leaders of the Kremlin and of the countries of the Communist bloc to repress any attempt at democratisation in Czechoslovakia. In this cartoon, the Czechoslovak leader, Alexander Dubcek, is portrayed as an animal ripe for shooting.
On 21 August 1968, fearing a surge of protest in the country, members of the Communist Party’s Central Committee, of the government and of Czechoslovakia’s National Assembly call for help from governments and sister Communist Parties.
On 21 August 1968, the Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry addresses to the Bulgarian, East German, Hungarian, Polish and Soviet Governments a note which strongly criticises the intervention of their troops in Czechoslovakia.
On 21 August 1968, the day after the Soviet military intervention in Prague, General Ludvik Svoboda, President of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, calls on his fellow citizens to face up to the challenge and to continue to seek the liberalisation of Socialism.
On 22 August 1968, the Austrian Socialist daily newspaper Arbeiter-Zeitung illustrates how the Prague Spring was crushed by Red Army tanks and draws a parallel with the events that took place in Berlin in 1953 and in Budapest in 1956.
‘A blow to imperialism’. During the night of 20–21 August 1968, the plans of Alexander Dubcek, First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, to establish Communism with a human face in Czechoslovakia are nipped in the bud by Soviet military intervention.
‘Right of way — Dubcek: “OK, OK, OK — I drove too far to the right!”’ In September 1968, Ernst Maria Lang, German cartoonist, commenting on Soviet military intervention in Czechoslovakia, illustrates the tragic policy of Alexander Dubcek, forced to accept Moscow’s orders.
On 10 September 1968, the French Conservative daily newspaper Le Figaro publishes a letter addressed to French readers by a resident of Prague and member of the Czechoslovak Communist Party which testifies to the fear inspired in his fellow citizens by the Soviet military intervention.
Dans ses Mémoires, Alexandre Dubcek, ancien premier secrétaire du Parti communiste de Tchécoslovaquie, explique son refus de croire, en été 1968, à l'éventualité d'une intervention militaire de l'Union soviétique pour mettre fin aux réformes dites du "Printemps de Prague".
Dans ses Mémoires, Alexandre Dubcek, ancien premier secrétaire du Parti communiste tchécoslovaque, explique la portée des réformes apportées, à partir d'avril 1968, au système politique national et plus connues sous le nom "Printemps de Prague".
On 21 August 1968, the daily newspaper Luxemburger Wort condemns the actions of Moscow and the entry of troops from the Member States of the Warsaw Pact into Czechoslovakia during the night of 20–21 August 1968.
On 22 August 1968, the French newspaper Le Monde examines Western reactions to the military intervention in Czechoslovakia by five Member States of the Warsaw Pact, including the Soviet Union, on the night of 21 to 22 August 1968.
The day after Warsaw Pact troops entered Czechoslovakia on 21 August 1968, the German daily newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung considers the reasons behind Moscow’s desire to crush the ‘Prague Spring’ and analyses the impact of the military intervention on the countries of the Eastern bloc.
On 22 August 1968, the day after the invasion of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact troops, the French daily newspaper Le Figaro outlines the international and political consequences of the Soviet aggression and speaks of a return to the darkest days of the Cold War.
On 22 August 1968, the French daily newspaper Combat condemns the invasion of Czechoslovakia by troops of the Warsaw Pact countries and analyses Moscow’s motivations for crushing the popular uprising in Prague.
On 23 August 1968, the East German Communist daily newspaper Neues Deutschland supports the entry of Warsaw Pact troops into Czechoslovakia, seeing the move as a sign of solidarity with the Czechoslovak people.
On 23 August 1968, in the wake of the tragic events in Czechoslovakia, the US Department of State denies all rumours in the press concerning any collusion between the United States and the USSR with regard to the distribution of ‘spheres of influence’ in Europe.
On 29 August 1968, addressing the Italian Chamber of Deputies, the Socialist leader, Pietro Nenni, strongly criticises the invasion of Czechoslovakia by Soviet troops and emphasises the need for the Six to pursue a determined policy to achieve European unity.
On 10 September 1968, the French Socialist daily newspaper Le Populaire speculates on the geopolitical repercussions of the Czechoslovak crisis and regrets the absence of a joint reaction by the Six over foreign policy.
On 23 September 1968, Mario Scelba, rapporteur for the European Parliament’s Political Affairs Committee, submits a motion for a resolution on the political implications of the recent events in Czechoslovakia.
On 16 October 1968, the Luxembourg Foreign Minister, Pierre Grégoire, makes a statement to the Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies on the international situation following the invasion of Czechoslovakia by Soviet troops.
On 24 October 1968, a confidential note from the Luxembourg Ministry of Foreign Affairs considers future relations between Luxembourg and the countries of Eastern Europe following the tragic events in Czechoslovakia.
On 5 and 6 January 1969, commenting on the events that took place in Prague during the summer of 1968, the French daily newspaper Le Monde looks back at the political career of Alexander Dubcek, First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.