‘Charles de Gaulle’s road to Europe: not together, but side by side.’ Following a press conference held on 5 September 1960, General de Gaulle is accused of rejecting supranationality as a means of unifying Europe; instead, he develops his idea of a Europe of states. German cartoonist Ekö ironically portrays the highly idiosyncratic vision of European integration advocated by General de Gaulle. To the right of the French President, German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer.
On 23 September 1960, General de Gaulle sends a letter to the German Chancellor, Konrad Adenauer, in which he underlines the importance of Franco-German cooperation in promoting political union in Europe.
On 15 May 1962, while answering journalists' questions on the failure of the Fouchet Plan, General de Gaulle attacks the theories of supranationality and Atlanticism in order, once again, to defend his vision of a Europe of States.
On 15 May 1962, General Charles de Gaulle holds a press conference in Paris at which he reaffirms his concept of a Europe of the Nations and rejects supranational ideas, which he likens to a mixture of Esperanto and Volapük.
‘“Pompidou!” “My general?” “These glasses are irritating me…” (Strikes, Europe)’. On 17 May 1962, two days after the press conference held by General de Gaulle in which he reaffirmed his view of a ‘Europe of states’, the French cartoonist Esenti paints an ironic picture of how President de Gaulle sees France’s position on the international stage. While the strikes affecting the country (coal mines and railways) and the vision of a supranational Europe seem to be irritating Charles de Gaulle — who complains openly about them to his Prime Minister Georges Pompidou —, the Head of State dreams of a policy of independence and grandeur for France. General de Gaulle imagines a US President (John F. Kennedy, on the left) and a Soviet leader (Nikita S. Khrushchev, on the right) greeting the French President with respect and deference, as they would have greeted the Sun King. Under his arm de Gaulle is carrying the nuclear deterrent, emphasising France’s role as a member of the very select club of nuclear nations and therefore its influence in the world.
On 18 May 1962, the daily newspaper Le monde du travail, published by the Liège Province Federation of the Belgian Socialist Party (PSB), strongly criticises the French President General de Gaulle’s position on Europe after he ridiculed the idea of a supranational Europe at a press conference held on 15 May in Paris.
On 24 September 1962, Pierre Pflimlin addresses the Assembly of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg. In this, his first speech since his resignation from the French Government, he denounces General de Gaulle’s European policy.
‘Here’s the French solution.’ On 9 July 1965, the French weekly satirical publication Le Canard enchaîné publishes a cartoon by Lap illustrating the Gaullist vision of European policy: ‘A Europe of my Six’ moving forward under the command of General de Gaulle.
On 30 May 1968, Charles de Gaulle, President of the French Republic, delivers a forceful broadcast speech in order to regain control of public opinion, thrown into confusion by the political events resulting from the student protest.
In this interview, Archduke Otto von Habsburg-Lothringen, President of the International Paneuropean Union and former Member of the European Parliament, explains why he regards General de Gaulle as a major figure in the history of European integration.
‘Who does the baby look like — you or me?’ In January 1960, cartoonist Hans Geisen takes an ironic look at German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and French President Charles de Gaulle, who, standing over the cradle of European unity, speculate on its paternity within the Franco-German duo.
On 7 September 1960, a note from the Luxembourg Embassy in Bonn to the Luxembourg Minister for Foreign Affairs sets out Germany’s reactions to the press conference held by the French President, Charles de Gaulle.
‘When the rooster sings on the manure heap, everything stays as it is!’ On 9 September 1960, a few days after the press conference held by French President Charles de Gaulle during which he proposed European political cooperation on the basis of individual states rather than the current supranational system, the Swiss cartoonist Hans Geisen paints an ironic picture of the role the French President is hoping to play on the European stage. Charles de Gaulle, depicted as a rooster, seems to want to assume a leadership role and reign supreme over the poultry yard of European states. But the French proposal ultimately meets with little enthusiasm from France’s European partners.
‘Attack on Europe.’ On 10 September 1960, referring to the gunpowder plot of 1605 against the Protestant King of England, James I, the German cartoonist, Pi, illustrates the concerns of Walter Hallstein, President of the Commission of the European Economic Community, following the press conference held by General de Gaulle, President of the French Republic, on a Europe of States.
‘The barrier.’ On 18 May 1962, in reaction to the press conference held by General de Gaulle, President of the French Republic, the German cartoonist, Hartung, harshly criticises the Gaullist view of Europe which favours a Europe of States and is hostile to any form of supranational integration.
‘Mathematics à la France’. On 30 September 1964, Swiss cartoonist Hans Geisen paints an ironic picture of the highly idiosyncratic view of Europe held by General de Gaulle, President of the French Republic. De Gaulle is portrayed as a teacher explaining the ‘Europe’ equation to his young pupils: ‘Europe = France + 1/2 Germany = de Gaulle’. In the front row, the German pupil dressed as the ‘little German Michel’ is following the lesson given by the French master.
On 5 January 1965, the Belgian daily newspaper La Gazette de Liège publishes an article written by Konrad Adenauer, former Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and Chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), who emphasises that an entente is required between France and Germany if political integration in Europe is to be achieved.
Dans ses Mémoires, le chancelier allemand Konrad Adenauer se souvient de sa première rencontre, le 14 septembre 1958, avec le général de Gaulle dans sa maison de "La Boisserie" à Colombey-les-deux-Églises.
In this interview, Egon Bahr, former Director of the Analysis and Forecasting service at the German Ministry for Foreign Affairs under Willy Brandt, discusses the stance taken by Willy Brandt towards the European policy of General de Gaulle, in particular regarding the United Kingdom's accession to the European Communities.
On 7 September 1960, Pierre Pescatore, Political Director in the Luxembourg Ministry of Foreign Affairs, writes a summary note on the position taken by Italian diplomats in the light of General de Gaulle’s proposals on European political cooperation.
On 21 December 1965, activists belonging to the European Federalist Mouvement take to the streets of Rome in protest at the policies relating to European integration pursued by French President, Charles de Gaulle.
On 9 September 1960, Albert Borschette, Permanent Representative of Luxembourg to the EC, forwards to Eugène Schaus, Luxembourg Minister for Foreign Affairs, a report in which he analyses General de Gaulle’s European policy.
On 18 September 1960, the Luxembourg Government publishes a communiqué on the talks held the previous day at the Élysée Palace between Ministers from France and Luxembourg regarding European political cooperation.
On 15 February 1966, the Luxemburg Embassy in Brussels sends a note to the Luxembourg Foreign Minister, Pierre Werner, in which it informs him of the position of the Belgian Foreign Minister, Paul-Henri Spaak, on the possibility of a revival in political cooperation between the Six.
On 23 February 1966, the Luxemburg Ambassador to Brussels sends a note to the Luxembourg Foreign Minister, Pierre Werner, in which he informs him of the position of the Belgian Foreign Minister, Paul-Henri Spaak, on the possibility of a revival in political consultations between the Six, in the presence of the United Kingdom.
On 8 September 1960, Robert Als, Luxembourg Ambassador to Paris, sends Eugène Schaus, Luxembourg Minister for Foreign Affairs, a letter in which he gives an account of an interview with his Dutch counterpart, Jan Willem Beyen, on General de Gaulle’s concept of a Europe of States.
For Opland, Dutch cartoonist, ‘de Gaulle’s Europe’ is a Europe of States shielded from the stranglehold of the influence of the United States and Moscow which makes it ‘inaccessible to friend and foe alike’.
‘I am Europe!’ In June 1962, in the Dutch daily newspaper Algemeen Handelsblad, the Dutch cartoonist originally from Berlin, Fritz Behrendt, takes an ironic look at the oversized ego of General de Gaulle, President of the French Republic, who wants to take all the leading roles in Europe’s history.
In October 1960, British cartoonist David Low takes an ironic look at the European plans of French President Charles de Gaulle and portrays the bitter failure of his Algerian policy. In the background, German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan.
On 18 May 1962, the British cartoonist, David Low, takes an ironic look at General de Gaulle’s vision of Europe and illustrates the surprise of the US President, John F. Kennedy, and of the British Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, at the French President’s views.