On 15 February 1952 in Geneva, Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Yugoslavia signed the Agreement constituting a Council of Representatives of European States for planning an international laboratory and organising other forms of cooperation in nuclear research.
On 1 July 1953 in Paris, under the watchful eye of Miss Thorneycroft, attachée to the Secretariat of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), Professor Gustavo Colonetti, head of the Italian delegation, signs the Convention establishing the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). In the background, the Swiss and French physicists Peter Preiswerk and Lew Kowarski can be seen.
On 1 July 1953, in Paris, Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Yugoslavia sign the Final Act of the Conference to establish the European Organisation for Nuclear Research.
In May 1958, Alexander Hocker, Head of Department at the German Ministry of Atomic Energy, presents the results obtained by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) as an example to be followed in terms of European cooperation.
On 23 September 1966, the Italian Government sends a note to Marcel Fischbach, Luxembourg Minister for Middle Classes and the Armed Forces and Deputy Foreign Minister, in which it calls for a large-scale technological and scientific Marshall Plan to be launched in Europe, within the institutional framework of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), to close the technological gap in Western Europe compared with the United States and the Soviet Union.