Dans ses Mémoires, le président égyptien Anouar al-Sadate rappelle les circonstances de l'attaque israélienne du 5 juin 1967 et décrit la réaction dépitée des autorités civiles et militaires égyptiennes.
Dans ses Mémoires, le président égyptien Anouar al-Sadate rappelle les raisons et les circonstances de la guerre du Kippour déclenchée le 6 octobre 1973 par l'Égypte et la Syrie contre les positions israéliennes.
On 7 October 1973, the Italian daily newspaper Corriere della Sera describes the Kippour War, declared the previous day by Egypt and Syria against Israel, as a renewed threat to stability in the Middle East.
In his editorial of 12 February 1981, Emanuele Gazzo, Director-General of Agence Europe, comments on the speech delivered by Egyptian President, Anouar al-Sadate, to the European Parliament, and calls upon the Ten to work actively in support of the Arab-Israeli peace process.
On 22 October 1973, the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera expresses concern at the decision adopted by the Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) to block all deliveries of petroleum to the European States supporting Israel during the Yom Kippur War.
On 6 November 1973, owing to concern over the repercussions of the unrest raging in the Middle East following the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War, the Nine, meeting in Copenhagen, publish a joint statement in which they define the principles that they believe should form the basis of a Middle-East peace agreement.
On 25 September 1979, Michael O'Kennedy, Irish Foreign Minister and President-in-Office of the Council of the European Communities, delivers a speech during the 34th session of the United Nations General Assembly, on European Political Cooperation (EPC).
On 6 February 1971, German daily newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung reviews Europe's energy resources and considers the policy pursued by the members of the Organisation of the Petrolium Exporting Countries (OPEC).
En juin 1971, l'Assemblée consultative du Conseil de l'Europe publie un rapport sur la situation pétrolière en Europe et sur les mesures capables d'améliorer la sécurité des approvisionnements d'énergie du continent européen.
On 24 July 1973, the Council of the European Communities, alarmed by the repercussions of the oil crisis which is affecting Europe, adopts a series of measures aimed at ensuring the supply of crude oil to the Nine.
On 8 October 1973, two days after the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War between Egypt and Israel, Italian daily newspaper Corriere della Sera expresses concern about a possible crude oil embargo imposed on Western oil-consuming countries by oil-producing Arab countries.
On 7 November 1973, with the US in the throes of the oil crisis, the US President, Richard Nixon, outlines the measures envisaged by his government with a view to guaranteeing that the US will never again have to rely on imports for its oil supplies.
On 14 December 1973, in parallel with the Copenhagen European Summit, Per Hakkerup, Danish Economics Minister, meets the Foreign Ministers from Sudan (Mansour Khaled), Tunisia (Mohammed Masmoudi), and the Arab Emirates (Adnane Al Pachachi), at the Britannia Hotel.
On 14 December 1973, the Foreign Ministers of the Nine, in attendance at the Copenhagen European Summit, meet the Arab counterparts at the Danish Parliament following their unexpected arrival in the Danish capital.
In an annex to the final declaration of the Copenhagen European Summit of 14 and 15 December 1973, the Heads of State or Government of the Nine describe their fears with regard to the energy crisis affecting the main industrialised countries of the world and adopt a series of measures aimed at resolving it.
On 25 December 1973, the Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) confirms in a communiqué that it intends to continue its oil embargo and asks for the opening of international negotiations on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
At the opening of the Washington energy conference held from 11 to 13 February 1974, François-Xavier Ortoli, President of the European Commission, describes the international repercussions of the oil crisis.
On 11 February 1974, at the Washington Energy Conference, Michel Jobert, French Foreign Minister, voices his wish for international consensus on the organisation of relations between oil-importing and oil-exporting countries.
At the opening of the Washington Energy Conference, held from 11 to 13 February 1974, Walter Scheel, German Foreign Minister and President-in-Office of the Council, calls for greater international cooperation in order to resolve the energy crisis.
On 13 February 1974, at the close of the Washington Energy Conference, Michel Jobert, French Foreign Minister, reveals his doubts about the effectiveness of measures proposed by the Conference to alleviate the effects of the world oil crisis.
‘Bang!’ In February 1974, at the end of the Ministerial Washington Energy Conference, the cartoonist Hans Geisen takes an ironic look at the action plan adopted by the representatives of the oil-consuming countries to meet the challenges of the world oil crisis.
On 20 March 1974 in the columns of the German newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, the cartoonist Bas portrays US President Richard Nixon's displeasure at being sidelined during the negotiations held between the Nine and the Arab leaders.
‘The main thing is that we are united’. In 1974, the Swiss cartoonist Hans Geisen takes an ironic look at the powerlessness of Western countries to tackle the consequences of the oil crisis triggered by Arab oil-producing countries.
On 29 November 1976, according to this cartoon by Bas and the German daily newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, given the slow pace of the Arab negotiations, there is no end in sight to the oil crisis in Europe.
On 3 February 1981, Fritz Behrendt, a Dutch cartoonist originally from Berlin, illustrates the consequences of the second oil shock, which has led to an increase in the price of oil by a factor of 2.7 from mid-1978 to 1981. This oil crisis results in a rise in energy costs for industrialised nations and higher prices at the pump.
On 25 October 1993, 20 years after the decision by the members of the Organisation of the petrolium exporting countries (OPEC) to drastically reduce their oil exports, the French daily newspaper Le Monde restates the economic and political reasons for this decision, which was at the origin of the first world oil crash.
In this interview, Étienne Davignon, former Director-General for Policy in the Belgian Foreign Ministry, considers the inability of the nine Member States of the European Communities to define a common energy policy following the first oil crisis in 1973.
In this interview, Étienne Davignon, former Director-General for Policy in the Belgian Foreign Ministry and former Chairman of the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency (IEA), considers the establishment of this Agency within the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) following the first oil crisis in 1973.
In this interview, Étienne Davignon, former Director-General for Policy in the Belgian Foreign Ministry and former Chairman of the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency (IEA) established within the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), considers France’s refusal to take part in the work of the IEA.
In this interview, Étienne Davignon, former Director-General for Policy in the Belgian Foreign Ministry and former Chairman of the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency (IEA), describes the attitudes of the various Member Countries of the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) after the 1973 oil crisis.
On 17 November 1973, this driver from Munich feels the true consequences of the fuel crisis, the effects of which have also reached federal Germany: fuel consumption is restricted, the sale of fuel in cans is banned, driving on Sunday is forbidden and, in some cases, petrol stations close.
On 14 October 1975, at the International Energy Conference organised in Bonn by the Friedrich-Ebert Foundation, Hans Apel, Finance Minister of the Federal Republic of Germany, discusses the causes and the consequences of the global economic recession.
On 23 November 1973, this manager of a British petrol station announces the closure of his business due to the fuel shortage, also affecting the United Kingdom, following cuts in oil production implemented by the Arab crude oil producing countries.
On 6 November 1973, the streets of Amsterdam are freely accessible to cyclists and skaters following the decision taken by the Netherlands authorities to prohibit car traffic on Sundays in order to comabt the fuel shortage that has been affecting the country since the Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) decided to limit its exports of crude oil.
‘Disciples of the Club of Rome. Van der Stoel: “… while we’re on the subject, we are actually doing something for the environment …!”’ In October 1973, Opland, Dutch cartoonist, describes the effects of the oil crisis in the Netherlands.
On 11 November 1973, on a visit to London, Johannes Marten den Uyl, Netherlands Prime Minister, meets his British counterpart, Edward Heath, to discuss the oil crisis and the situation in the Middle East.
‘Down the line. “… Come on Joop …!”’ In November 1973, Joop den Uyl, Prime Minister of the Netherlands, is having great difficulty driving an economy forward which has been badly hit by the oil crisis.
Le 18 novembre 1973, face à l'embargo pétrolier touchant les Pays-Bas, Roger Haster, ambassadeur luxembourgeois en poste à La Haye adresse une lettre à Gaston Thorn, ministre luxembourgeois des Affaires étrangères, dans laquelle il détaille les réactions des milieux politiques néerlandais face au chantage pétrolier des pays du Moyen-Orient.
For the cartoonist Fritz Behrendt, ‘Winter 1973’ is synonymous with the problems faced by the West in the wake of the oil crisis, although France continues to maintain good relations with the countries in the Middle East.
En janvier 1975, commentant les résultats du sommet de Paris des 9 et 10 décembre 1974, la revue du Mouvement européen néerlandais Nieuw Europa analyse la politique de la Communauté économique européenne face à la crise du pétrole.
Le 26 octobre 1973, Marcel Mart, ministre luxembourgeois de l'Économie, adresse une lettre à Gilles Olinger, porte-parole des sociétés pétrolières luxembourgeoises, dans laquelle il appelle les grandes firmes pétrolières du pays à réserver une partie de leur stock pour tenir compte des besoins prioritaires du Luxembourg.
Le 6 novembre 1973, le comité belgo-luxembourgeois des approvisionnements se rencontre à Bruxelles, afin d'examiner les mesures de restriction envisagées pour l'approvisionnement en produits pétroliers.
Le 21 novembre 1973, le gouvernement luxembourgeois interdit toute consommation non expressément autorisée de combustibles liquides à partir du dimanche, 25 novembre, 3 heures du matin au lundi, 26 novembre 1973 à 3 heures du matin.
On 25 December 1973, in its coverage of the decision taken by the Persian Gulf States to double the price of oil, the French daily newspaper Le Monde considers the causes of the oil crisis and focuses upon its consequences for Western economies.
In 1974, at a conference held in Austria on the economic and political situation in Europe, Otto von Habsburg, President of the International Paneuropean Union, gives his views on the world oil crisis and on its economic consequences for Europe.